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Nirvana Vitara - Brainwave Entrainment Studies and Proven Benefits


Nirvana VitaraThe Nirvana Vitara produces brainwave entrainment using tiny magnetic pulses, which is a known as Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy or PEMF, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) or Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS). There are many benefits of brainwave entrainment that have been proven by scientific studies. We believe that using magnetic pulse technology to create brainwave entrainment is 10 times more powerful (producing deeper experiences of transcending and higher states of consciousness) than traditional meditation.

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Nirvana Vitara Campaign ContributionWe also have one Founder's Certificate left. The value of the this certificate is $48,000 in discounts on products, services and a 90% discount on the stock of the new corporation, Vedic Vitaras, Inc.

The following is a sample from this large body of research. Please note that these are not the only benefits, only those that have been proven by studies.

Enhance Your Memory and Focus

When you’re in a problem situation, it often happens that your mind gets stuck and performs poorly. Your brain should get into the “Zone” and perform at its best but instead it leaves you frustrated. There are many who find it difficult to use their cognitive abilities when they need them the most.

It is exciting and liberating to know that the brain can change. We can now improve our abilities dramatically.

Brain stimulation through a system such as the Nirvana Vitara is the perfect solution to teach our minds to get into the ideal states for problem solving and improve our cognitive abilities.

Many case studies show that brainwave entrainment improved memory, cognitive skills, brain processing speed, and increased focus and attention in helping college students improve their GPA scores.

A study was done in 2001 by Dr. Williams where he found that a frequency of 10Hz enhances memory in healthy people and may even have potential in those with memory disorders.

Research was published in BMC Neuroscience in March of 2006 where the effects of Alpha brainwave stimulation had a great impact on memory tasks. The test showed that older and younger individuals performed on the same high level after receiving stimulation.

The Nirvana Vitara includes Memory Enhancement five times during the night at the end of each sleep cycle to  provide your brain with the 10Hz frequency for 5 to 10 minutes for a total of 40 minutes of 10Hz frequency every night to give you the opportunity to receive the same and even better results.

Source: Williams, J., Ramaswamy, D. and Oulhaj, A., 2006. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people. BMC Neurosci. 7, 21. Williams JH. Frequency specific effects of flicker on recognition memory. Neuroscience. 2001;104(2):283-286

Study on Cognitive Improvement by Ruth Olmstead, Ph.D.

This study was conducted by Ruth Olmstead, Ph.D. In the study 30 students were given brainwave stimulation twice a week for 6 weeks. It was proven that the 30 students had a significant increase in their cognitive abilities shown through a number of different tests. Before the 6 week program the average score of the students was 12.9. After the program the average score was 18.8.

Study on Improved Focus and Concentration by Dr. Graham J. Patrick

Participants were given a total of 15 sessions each. The study proved a significant improvement in attention. Based on the test, WISC-3 Freedom from Distractibility, scores improved by 81%.

There was a definitive conclusion that the participants benefited from the 15 neurotherapy sessions. It was also noted that none of the 10 control group participants showed any improvement.

Study on Brainwave Stimulation vs. Ritalin

There was also a great study which compared the results of brainwave stimulation versus the use of Ritalin. One group received brainwave stimulation for 4 weeks while the other was on Ritalin medication for a 4 week period.

The IQ tests confirmed that those who received the brainwave stimulation outperformed those on Ritalin in all 5 of the IQ tests.

Study on Academic Achievement

The study was conducted on 16 university students who all signed up for academic counseling. They were then divided into 2 groups of 8 each. The 1st group received 30 sessions of brainwave stimulation while the 2nd group received none.

The GPA scores of the students were taken the following semester. The group who received no stimulation had a decrease in their GPA scores of .22 points. The group who received brainwave stimulation had a significant increase of over half a grade.

Boost Athletic Performance

Every athlete knows that sports are not only a battle on the sports field or track but also a constant battle in the mind. When an athlete experiences stress and anxiety, the muscles can become tense and more energy is needed to perform. The mind can also not respond quickly enough in challenging situations.

There are a growing number of athletes who use brain wave stimulation to bring their mind up to peak performance. These athletes have reported massive improvements in their mental attitude and their ability to respond quickly in changing circumstances.

By using EEG monitoring we are able to see the difference in brainwave activity of someone who is an average performer compared to someone who is performing at their very best. By using the Nirvana Vitara your brainwave activity will become similar to those who perform at the highest levels.

Many coaches have recognized these techniques and have implemented them as part of their training programs. The Nirvana Vitara enables the athlete to quickly get into the “Zone” and be on top of their game.

Studies on Athletes

There have been many studies on the relationship between the strength of Alpha brainwaves and performance in various sports. Crews et al (1998) did a study on golf putting and found that successful putts were associated with high-frequency Alpha. This study agreed with work performed by Hatfield et al (1984) and Crews & Landers (1993) who suggested that stronger Alpha activity had a relation to increased accuracy.

Jannelle et al (2000) did a study on archery and pistol shooting and found significant increases in Alpha waves in top performing marksmen. In a report by Landers et al (1994) it was found that beginner archers had low activity of Alpha waves but with more practice the amplitude increased in the left hemisphere of the brain. After a 15-week program, participants showed a 62% increase in performance.

Hatfield also conducted studies on marksmen and specifically monitored the brain activity at the moment of execution. Hatfield et al (1982) and Hatfield, Landers & Ray (1984) found that at the moment before the marksmen pulled the trigger, an increase in Alpha waves occurred in the left temporal lobe (T3) and Alpha waves remained stable in the right temporal lobe (T4). Increase in Alpha power was also confirmed by Loze et al (2001) in a study regarding air-pistol shooting.

Anna Wise spent more than 6000 hours to monitor the brainwaves of extraordinary achievers which included composers, inventors, artists, athletes, dancers, scientists, mathematicians, CEO’s and presidents of large corporations. She also found that these individuals had more powerful Alpha brainwaves than the average performer.

All these studies confirm the efficiency of strong Alpha brainwaves which are provided every night by the Nirvana Vitara during each of the five sleep cycles.

Improve Your Mood

It’s almost impossible to explain to someone how difficult life is with a constant negative state of mind. Other people simply have no idea what you’re going through. It’s a massive struggle no one should have to live with.

It becomes a huge challenge just to do simple things like getting out of bed, getting something to eat, meeting someone for lunch. Everything becomes a burden and all you can think of is how to end the pain.

Research by Davidson (1990) has shown that negative states can be linked to an imbalance in the 2 hemispheres of the brain. Studies have been conducted and confirmed that brainwave stimulation can be a solution to this problem.

Kathy Berg and David Siever conducted a study on Seasonal Affective Disorder. Results showed that 84% of the subjects became non-depressed after their treatment. 100% of them had a huge reduction in their depression. It also showed the subjects had a decrease in anxiety, their energy and motivation levels dramatically increased and eating disorders went down significantly. It is known that 12 of the subjects lost an average of 9.5 pounds as a result of the treatments.

Dr. Margaret Patterson, in collaboration with biochemist Dr. Ifor Capel, at the Marie Curie Cancer Memorial Foundation Research Department, in Surrey, England, has shown that Alpha frequencies in the brain dramatically speed up production of serotonin. Serotonin is an important chemical neurotransmitter in the human body that affects mood, social behavior, appetite and digestion, sleep, memory, sexual desire and brain function.

Another study was conducted by David Cantor, Ph.D., in 2009. 16 participants received brainwave entrainment over a period of 4 weeks. The Beck Depression Inventory–II showed a large reduction of depression in the participants.

Eliminate Stress

Stress is a huge problem in today’s society. Work pressure has increased and people have little physical activity to release themselves from this stress. It causes the brain to be too active and the mind and body never really get a chance to completely rest.

With an EEG machine researchers can monitor the brainwaves of someone who is relaxed compared to someone who is stressed. With brain stimulation, those frequencies that make a person calm can be stimulated and the Nirvana Vitara does this very well.

In 2000 there was a study conducted at a Dutch addiction center. The experiment was done on people who had an addiction caused by high workloads. The subjects completed an anxiety test before and after each session of brainwave stimulation. The test is called the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test. It is widely used to determine stress and anxiety levels.

The group that underwent the sessions showed a great decrease in stress and anxiety.

Please note that the Nirvana Vitara is not a replacement for medical or psychological treatment and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Increase in Energy and Motivation

It is common when using the Nirvana Vitara to experience a big increase in your energy levels. It is also common that getting up in the morning is so much easier than before and starting the day is much more enjoyable.

Brainwave stimulation does not only help with relaxation but it creates the right patterns in the brain to improve energy levels and motivation.

Dr. David Trudeau performed a study in 1998 to treat patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The results reported very beneficial results such as reduced depression and impulsivity. The subjects also reported increase in energy levels and better sleep.

In 1986 a study was conducted by Dr. Cary Howard to find a way to reduce exhaustion and stress in students of a dental course. There were 12 students who went through a stimulation session of 30 minutes each over a period of 7 weeks. The POMs (Profile of Mood States) test showed that fatigue levels were significantly reduced.

Develop Healthy Sleep Patterns

A large percentage of society has trouble with sleep. They either sleep too much, too little or don't enter deep sleep stages. Studies have shown that the brain’s ability to fall asleep lies in the range of 12 to 15Hz (SMR: sensory motor rhythm). The problem people have is that they do not have enough brainwave activity in the SMR region.

A study was conducted by Dr. Hauri who performed SMR training on 16 participants. The results showed that those who had trouble sleeping had greatly improved their ability to fall asleep.

The Nirvana Vitara has 5 modules specifically designed for perfection of sleep patterns and to promote the experience of lucid dreaming.

Stimulate the Hipocampus for Neurogenesis (create new brain cells)

Deep-brain magnetic stimulation promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis:  Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)/ Deep-brain Magnetic Stimulation (DMS) - which is the Nirvana Vitara basic technology, is an effective therapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression disorder. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the impacts of rTMS/DMS on the brain are not yet fully understood.


Here we studied the effects of deep-brain magnetic stimulation to brain on the molecular and cellular level. We examined the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal synaptic plasticity of rodent under stress conditions with deep-brain magnetic stimulation treatment. We found that DMS promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis significantly and facilitates the development of adult new-born neurons. Remarkably, DMS exerts anti-depression effects in the learned helplessness mouse model and rescues hippocampal long-term plasticity impaired by restraint stress in rats. Moreover, DMS alleviates the stress response in a mouse model for Rett syndrome and prolongs the life span of these animals dramatically.


Deep-brain magnetic stimulation greatly facilitates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maturation, also alleviates depression and stress-related responses in animal models.

Hundreds of Scientific Study Citations

There are hundreds of scientific studies that prove the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation as a very safe and effective methodology. We have compiled a short list for your consideration. To read the original source, use Pubmed and search for Title of the citation

J Orthop Res. 2004 Jan;22(1):80-4.
Smith TL, Wong-Gibbons D, Maultsby J.
Microcirculatory effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2003;37(5):410-3.
[The efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields used alone in the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis: a report of two cases][Article in Turkish]
Seber S, Omeroglu H, Cetinkanat H, Kose N.
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology (Ortopedi ve Travmatoloji Anabilim Dali), Medicine Faculty of Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2003 Sep;24(6):373-9.
The effect of exposure to high flux density static and pulsed magnetic fields on lymphocyte function.
Aldinucci C, Garcia JB, Palmi M, Sgaragli G, Benocci A, Meini A, Pessina F, Rossi C, Bonechi C, Pessina GP.
Department of Physiology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):38-48.
Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED.
Energy Medicine Developments, (North America), Inc., Burke, Va., USA
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this randomized, double-bind, placebo controlled trial is consistent with results from smaller studies suggesting that exposure to pulsing, weak electromagnetic fields can alleviate symptoms of MS.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2003 Sep;24(6):431-9.
Effects of different intensities of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on formation of osteoclast-like cells.
Chang K, Chang WH, Wu ML, Shih C.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2003;153(3-4):65-72
PEMF may improve fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis.
Zifko UA.
Sonderkrankenanstalt fur Neurologie, Klinik Pirawarth, Kurhausstrasse 100, A-2222 Bad Pirawarth.
There is evidence, that pulsing electromagnetic fields may improve fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis.

Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:466-70.
Autoradiographic evaluation of electromagnetic field effects on serotonin (5HT1A) receptors in rat brain.
Johnson MT, McCullough J, Nindl G, Chamberlain JK.
Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Jun;11(6):455-62.
Modification of osteoarthritis by pulsed electromagnetic field–a morphological study.
Ciombor DM, Aaron RK, Wang S, Simon B.
Department of Orthopaedics, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02906, USA.

Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Mar;114(3):581-8.
Safety of the magnetic field generated by a neuronal magnetic stimulator: evaluation of possible mutagenic effects.
Charlet de Sauvage R, Grattepanche F, Cassand P, Caubet R, Moreaua JM.
Laboratoire PIOM (ENSCPB), Universite Bordeaux 1, 16, Avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac Cedex, France.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee–a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Pulsed magnetic field therapy is frequently used to treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis, although its efficacy has not been proven. We conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of pulsed magnetic field and sham therapy in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, PMF treatment can reduce impairment in activities of daily life and improve knee function.

NeuroRehabilitation 2002;17(1):63-7
Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar radiculopathy or the whiplash syndrome.
Thuile Ch, Walzl M.
International Society of Energy Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

NeuroRehabilitation 2002;17(1):9-22
Physical mechanisms in neuroelectromagnetic therapies.
Liboff AR, Jenrow KA.
Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003523.
Electromagnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Hulme J, Robinson V, DeBie R, Wells G, Judd M, Tugwell P.
Cochrane Collaborating Center, Center for Global Health, Institute of Population Health – University of Ottawa, 1 Stewart Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1N 6N5.

Brain Cogn 2002 Dec;50(3):366-86
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Neurophysiological applications and safety.
Anand S, Hotson J.
Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, 95192-0100, San Jose, CA, USA

Bioelectromagnetics 2002 Dec;23(8):578-85
Influence of 1 and 25 Hz, 1.5 mT magnetic fields on antitumor drug potency in a human adenocarcinoma cell line.
Ruiz-Gomez MJ, de la Pena L, Prieto-Barcia MI, Pastor JM, Gil L, Martinez-Morillo M.
Laboratory of Radiobiology, Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaga, Teatinos, Malaga, Spain.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Dec 1;52(11):1057-65
Chronic psychosocial stress and concomitant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: effects on stress hormone levels and adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Czeh B, Welt T, Fischer AK, Erhardt A, Schmitt W, Muller MB, Toschi N, Fuchs E, Keck ME.
The German Primate Center, Division of Neurobiology, (BC, AKF, EF), Gottingen, Germany

J ECT 2002 Dec;18(4):170-81
Mechanisms and state of the art of transcranial magnetic stimulation.
George MS, Nahas Z, Kozel FA, Li X, Denslow S, Yamanaka K, Mishory A, Foust MJ, Bohning DE.

J Med Eng Technol. 2002 Nov-Dec;26(6):253-8.
Comparison between the analgesic and therapeutic effects of a musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF) and those of a 100 Hz electromagnetic field: blind experiment on patients suffering from cervical spondylosis or shoulder periarthritis.
Rigato M, Battisti E, Fortunato M, Giordano N.
Department of Physics, Section of Medical Physics University of Sienna, Italy

Neuropsychopharmacology 2002 Oct;27(4):638-45
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: relation between efficacy and stimulation intensity.
Padberg F, Zwanzger P, Keck ME, Kathmann N, Mikhaiel P, Ella R, Rupprecht P, Thoma H, Hampel H, Toschi N, Moller HJ.
Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany

J Pharm Pharmacol 2002 Oct;54(10):1299-321
Melatonin: reducing the toxicity and increasing the efficacy of drugs.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Lopez-Burillo S.
University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, MC 7762, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2002 Oct;17(7):353-6
Combining high and low frequencies in rTMS antidepressive treatment: preliminary results.
Conca A, Di Pauli J, Beraus W, Hausmann A, Peschina W, Schneider H, Konig P, Hinterhuber H.
Departments of Psychiatry I and II, Regional Hospital, 6830 Rankweil, Austria.

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002 Sep;134(3):248-50.
Effect of bioresonance therapy on antioxidant system in lymphocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Islamov BI, Balabanova RM, Funtikov VA, Gotovskii YV, Meizerov EE.
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia.
Changes in the lymphocyte antioxidant system indicate that bioresonance therapy activates nonspecific protective mechanisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee–a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AKH Wien, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Altern Ther Health Med 2001 Sep-Oct;7(5):54-64, 66-9
Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritic knees: a double-blind clinical study.
Jacobson JI, Gorman R, Yamanashi WS, Saxena BB, Clayton L.
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research

JOrthop Res 2002 Sep;20(5):1106-14
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on late-phase osteotomy gap healing in a canine tibial model.
Inoue N, Ohnishi I, Chen D, Deitz LW, Schwardt JD, Chao EY.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Summer;14(3):270-6
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression.
Rosenberg PB, Mehndiratta RB, Mehndiratta YP, Wamer A, Rosse RB, Balish M.
Mental Health Service Line, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC 20422, USA.

J Clin Neurophysiol 2002 Aug;19(4):272-93
Applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in movement disorders.
Cantello R.
Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Neurology, School of Medicine, Amedeo Avogadro University, Novara, Italy.

Altern Ther Health Med 2002 Jul-Aug;8(4):50-5
Effects of static magnets on chronic knee pain and physical function: a double-blind study.
Hinman MR, Ford J, Heyl H.
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

Chang Gung Med J 2002 Jul;25(7):424-36
Transcranial magnetic stimulation and its applications in children.
Lin KL, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Neuropharmacology 2002 Jul;43(1):101-9
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal system.
Keck ME, Welt T, Muller MB, Erhardt A, Ohl F, Toschi N, Holsboer F, Sillaber I.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.

Am J Psychiatry 2002 Jul;159(7):1093-102
Slow transcranial magnetic stimulation, long-term depotentiation, and brain hyperexcitability disorders.
Hoffman RE, Cavus I.
Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, LV 108, 20 York Street, New Haven, CT 06504, USA

Neuroendocrinol Lett 2002 Jul;23 Suppl 2:9-13
Potential biological consequences of excessive light exposure: melatonin suppression, DNA damage, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Reiter RJ.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

J Orthop Res 2002 Jul;20(4):756-63
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteointegration of hydroxyapatite implants in cancellous bone: a morphologic and microstructural in vivo study.
Fini M, Cadossi R, Cane V, Cavani F, Giavaresi G, Krajewski A, Martini L, Aldini NN, Ravaglioli A, Rimondini L, Torricelli P, Giardino R.

Bioelectromagnetics 2002 Jul;23(5):398-405
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on bone tissue like formation are dependent on the maturation stages of the osteoblasts.
Diniz P, Shomura K, Soejima K, Ito G.
Department of Orthodontics, Kagoshima University Dental School, Kagoshima, Japan.

Calcif Tissue Int 2002 Jun;70(6):496-502
In vivo and in vitro effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field on net calcium flux in rat calvarial bone.
Spadaro JA, Bergstrom WH.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

Biol Cybern 2002 May;86(5):395-401
Nonlinear dynamics of the EEG separated by independent component analysis after sound and light stimulation.
Jin SH, Jeong J, Jeong DG, Kim DJ, Kim SY.
Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea.

Mov Disord 2002 May;17(3):528-32
Therapeutic efficacy of bilateral prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients with Parkinson’s disease: an open study.
Dragasevic N, Potrebic A, Damjanovic A, Stefanova E, Kostic VS.
Institute of Neurology Clinical Center of Serbia, Medical School, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
Br J Pharmacol 2002 May;136(1):57-66
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.
Varani K, Gessi S, Merighi S, Iannotta V, Cattabriga E, Spisani S, Cadossi R, Borea PA.
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pharmacology Unit, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Apr;959:238-50
Melatonin reduces oxidant damage and promotes mitochondrial respiration: implications for aging.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, El-Sawi MR.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA.

Neuroendocrinol Lett 2002 Apr;23 Suppl 1:118-21
Future of melatonin as a therapeutic agent.
Karasek M, Reiter RJ, Cardinali DP, Pawlikowski M.
Clinic of Endocrinology, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital – Research Institute, Lodz, Poland.

Neuroendocrinol Lett 2002 Apr;23 Suppl 1:14-6
Melatonin and aging.
Karasek M, Reiter RJ.
Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Chair of Pathomorphology, Medical University of Lodz, 92-216 Lodz, Czechoslowacka 8/10, Poland.

Neurology 2002 Apr 23;58(8):1288-90
Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Moser DJ, Jorge RE, Manes F, Paradiso S, Benjamin ML, Robinson RG.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):659-67
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: preliminary results of a randomized trial.
Janicak PG, Dowd SM, Martis B, Alam D, Beedle D, Krasuski J, Strong MJ, Sharma R, Rosen C, Viana M.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):687-90
Three and six-month outcome following courses of either ECT or rTMS in a population of severely depressed individuals–preliminary report.
Dannon PN, Dolberg OT, Schreiber S, Grunhaus L.
Psychiatry Division, ECT-TMS Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel Hashomer, Israel.
Encephale 2002 Mar-Apr;28(2):169-75
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression]
[Article in French]
Saba G, Januel D, Glikman J.
Psychiatre, assistant, Unite de Recherche clinique, Secteur III, Service du docteur Glikman, EPS de Ville Evrard, 5, rue du Docteur Delafontaine, 93200 Saint-Denis, France.

Life Sci 2002 Mar 1;70(15):1741-9
Sleep deprivation in depression stabilizing antidepressant effects by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Eichhammer P, Kharraz A, Wiegand R, Langguth B, Frick U, Aigner JM, Hajak G.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Germany.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Mar 1;51(5):417-21Exp Mol Med 2002 Mar 31;34(1):53-9
Enhanced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phospholipase C-gamma1 in regenerating murine neuronal cells by pulsed electromagnetic field.
Kim SS, Shin HJ, Eom DW, Huh JR, Woo Y, Kim H, Ryu SH, Suh PG, Kim MJ, Kim JY, Koo TW, Cho YH, Chung SM.
Department of Pathology, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Korea.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Mar 1;51(5):417-21
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) effects on testosterone, prolactin, and corticosterone in adult male rats.
Hedges DW, Salyer DL, Higginbotham BJ, Lund TD, Hellewell JL, Ferguson D, Lephart ED.
Department of Psychology and the Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings 1) suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis and 2) provide time-course data for the implications of the hormonal mechanism that may be involved in the actions of transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Mar 15;51(6):474-9
Effects of different frequencies of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the forced swim test model of depression in rats.
Sachdev PS, McBride R, Loo C, Mitchell PM, Malhi GS, Croker V.
School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, and Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2002 Mar;5(1):73-103
Neuropsychiatric applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation: a meta analysis.
Burt T, Lisanby SH, Sackeim HA.
Department of Biological Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Mar 28;114(5-6):181-6
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)–from diagnostic procedure to therapy]
[Article in German]
Quiner S, Letmaier M, Barnas C, Heiden A, Kasper S.
Universitatsklinik fur Neuropsychiatrie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Wien.

Arch Neurol 2002 Mar;59(3):413-7
Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum in essential tremor: a controlled study.
Gironell A, Kulisevsky J, Lorenzo J, Barbanoj M, Pascual-Sedano B, Otermin P.
Servei de Neurologia, Hospital de Sant Pau, Av Sant Antoni Ma Claret 167, 08025

Curr Top Med Chem 2002 Feb;2(2):181-97
Chemical and physical properties and potential mechanisms: melatonin as a broad spectrum antioxidant and free radical scavenger.
Tan DX, Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Yan MT, El-Sawi M, Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Kohen R, Allegra M, Hardeland R.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78229-3900, USA.

J Fam Pract 2002 Jan;51(1):38-40
The effectiveness of magnet therapy for treatment of wrist pain attributed to carpal tunnel syndrome.
Carter R, Aspy CB, Mold J.
Family & Preventive Medicine, 900 NE 10th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.
We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial in which 30 patients with pain attributed to carpal tunnel syndrome had either a 1000 gauss magnet or a placebo metal disk applied to the carpal tunnel area using a Velcro wrap for a period of 45 minutes. Pain was measured on a visual analogue scale using 0 and 10 as anchors. Presenting symptoms including numbness, tingling, burning, and pain did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Results: There was significant pain reduction across the 45-minute period for both groups. However, t test comparisons found no significant differences between the groups for beginning pain, pain at 15 minutes, pain at 30 minutes, or pain at 45 minutes. Conclusion: The use of a magnet for reducing pain attributed to carpal tunnel syndrome was no more effective than use of the placebo device.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002 Jan;26(1):107-11
Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on forced swimming test.
Tsutsumi T, Fujiki M, Akiyoshi J, Horinouchi Y, Isogawa K, Hori S, Nagayama H.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Oita Medical University, Hasama-Machi, Japan.

Pharmacol Toxicol 2002 Jan;90(1):32-7
Inhibitory effect of melatonin on homocysteine-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates.
Osuna C, Reiter RJ, Garcia JJ, Karbownik M, Tan DX, Calvo JR, Manchester LC.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78229-3900, USA.

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2002 Jan;42(1):35-7
[The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the patients with Parkinson’s disease]
[Article in Japanese]
Fukudome T, Goto H, Izumoto H, Matsuo H, Shibuya N.
Department of Neurology, Kawatana National Hospital.

Curr Med Res Opin 2001;17(3):190-6
Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pipitone N, Scott DL.
Rheumatology Department, King’s College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.

J Tongji Med Univ 2001;21(2):159-62
A comparative study of the effects of magnetic stimulation and electric stimulation on peripheral nerve injury in rat.
Bannaga A, Guo T, Ouyang X, Hu D, Lin C, Cao F, Dun Y, Guo Z.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030.

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2001;(4):10-2
[Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with neurosensory hearing loss before and after magnetotherapy]
[Article in Russian]
Morenko VM, Enin IP.

Nervenarzt 2001 Dec;72(12):932-8
[Contralateral and ipsilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson patients]
[Article in German]
de Groot M, Hermann W, Steffen J, Wagner A, Grahmann F.
Klinik und Poliklinik fur Neurologie, Universitatsklinikum Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 22a, 04103 Leipzig.

Curr Med Res Opin 2001;17(3):190-6
Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pipitone N, Scott DL.
Rheumatology Department, King’s College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.

J Clin Psychiatry 2001 Dec;62(12):981-4
Right versus left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a preliminary investigation.
Sachdev PS, McBride R, Loo CK, Mitchell PB, Malhi GS, Croker VM.
School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Pediatr Res 2001 Dec;50(6):756-60
Effects of melatonin treatment in septic newborns.
Gitto E, Karbownik M, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Cuzzocrea S, Chiurazzi P, Cordaro S, Corona G, Trimarchi G, Barberi I.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Hawaii Med J 2001 Nov;60(11):288, 300
The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee preliminary report.
Danao-Camara T, Tabrah FL.
Division of Internal Medicine Subspecialities, Straub Clinic & Hospital, USA.

Can J Psychiatry 2001 Oct;46(8):720-7
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of mood disorder: a review and comparison with electroconvulsive therapy.
Hasey G.
Regional Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Psychol Med 2001 Oct;31(7):1141-6
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression and other psychiatric disorders.
McNamara B, Ray JL, Arthurs OJ, Boniface S.
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge.

Neuroreport 2001 Sep 17;12(13):2963-5
Pain relief induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of precentral cortex.
Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP.
Services de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Henri Mondor, 51 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Creteil, France.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2001 Sep-Oct;(5):3-8
[Theoretical and practical aspects of general magnetotherapy]
[Article in Russian]
Ulashchik VS.
Srp Arh Celok Lek 2001 Sep-Oct;129(9-10):235-8
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson ‘s disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

J Affect Disord 2001 Sep;66(1):83-8
The impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on pituitary hormone levels and cortisol in healthy subjects.
Evers S, Hengst K, Pecuch PW.
Department of Neurology, University of Munster, Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 33, 48129 Munster, Germany.
J Neurol 2001 Sep;248 Suppl 3:III48-52
Therapeutic effect and mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease.
Shimamoto H, Takasaki K, Shigemori M, Imaizumi T, Ayabe M, Shoji H.
Shimamoto Neurosurgical Clinic, Kurume University School of Medicine, Ohnojo-city, Fukuoka, Japan.
Psychopharmacol Bull 2001 Autumn;35(4):149-69
A meta-analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Russo J, Avery DH.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359896, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

J Psychiatr Res 2001 Jul-Aug;35(4):193-215
Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry: what do we know about the neurobiological mechanisms?
Post A, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, D-80804 Munich, Germany.

Clin Neurophysiol 2001 Aug;112(8):1367-77
Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review.
Wassermann EM, Lisanby SH.
Brain Stimulation Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 10 Center Drive MSC 1428, Bethesda, MD 20892-1428, USA.

J Neurosci 2001 Aug 1;21(15):RC157
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human prefrontal cortex induces dopamine release in the caudate nucleus.
Strafella AP, Paus T, Barrett J, Dagher A.
Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B4.

Neurosci Lett 2001 May 11;303(3):165-8
Striatal dopaminergic metabolism is increased by deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.
Meissner W, Reum T, Paul G, Harnack D, Sohr R, Morgenstern R, Kupsch A.
Department of Neurology, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Biol Psychiatry 2001 Jul 1;50(1):22-7
Acute mood and thyroid stimulating hormone effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression.
Szuba MP, O’Reardon JP, Rai AS, Snyder-Kastenberg J, Amsterdam JD, Gettes DR, Wassermann E, Evans DL.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001 Jun;939:200-15
Free radical-mediated molecular damage. Mechanisms for the protective actions of melatonin in the central nervous system.
Reiter RJ, Acuna-Castroviejo D, Tan DX, Burkhardt S.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Mail Code 7762, The University of Texas Health Science Center At San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Adv Ther. 2001 May-Jun;18(3):101-9.
Impulse magnetic-field therapy for migraine and other headaches: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pelka RB, Jaenicke C, Gruenwald J.
Universitat der Bundeswehr Munchen Munich, Germany.

Bioelectromagnetics 2001 May;22(4):267-71
Growth and differentiation of PC6 cells: the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF).
Shah JP, Midkiff P, Brandt PC, Sisken BF.
Center for Biomedical Engineering and Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506-0070, USA.

Percept Mot Skills 2001 Apr;92(2):469-76
Effect of magnetic insoles on postural sway measures in men and women during a static balance test.
Suomi R, Koceja DM.
School of Health, Exercise Science and Athletics, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point 54481, USA.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2001 Apr;24(4):337-49
Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a psychopathological animal model are suggestive of antidepressant-like effects.
Keck ME, Welt T, Post A, Muller MB, Toschi N, Wigger A, Landgraf R, Holsboer F, Engelmann M.

Neurology 2001 Feb 27;56(4):526-8
Enhancing analogic reasoning with rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex.
Boroojerdi B, Phipps M, Kopylev L, Wharton CM, Cohen LG, Grafman J.
Human Cortical Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Adv Ther 2001 Jan-Feb;18(1):12-20
Outcomes after posterolateral lumbar fusion with instrumentation in patients treated with adjunctive pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Bose B.
Medical Center of Delaware, Newark, USA.

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2001 Jan-Feb;129(1-2):1-4
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000;917:376-86
Melatonin and its relation to the immune system and inflammation.
Reiter RJ, Calvo JR, Karbownik M, Qi W, Tan DX.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Mail Code 7762, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.
Vopr Onkol 2000;46(4):469-72
[Use of artificial magnetic field for rehabilitation of children with malignant tumors]
[Article in Russian]
Kiselev AV, Grushina TI.
N.N. Blokhin Center for Oncology Research, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow.

Biomed Sci Instrum 2000;36:7-13
Experiments showing that electromagnetic fields can be used to treat inflammatory diseases.
Nindl G, Balcavage WX, Vesper DN, Swez JA, Wetzel BJ, Chamberlain JK, Fox MT.
Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine 47803, USA.

Brain Topogr 2000 Winter;13(2):135-44
Nonlinear analysis of brain activity in magnetic influenced Parkinson patients.
Anninos PA, Adamopoulos AV, Kotini A, Tsagas N.
Dept. of Medicine, Demokrition University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Neuroreport 2000 Dec 18;11(18):4013-5
High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenic patients.
Rollnik JD, Huber TJ, Mogk H, Siggelkow S, Kropp S, Dengler R, Emrich HM, Schneider U.
Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Medical School of Hannover, Germany.

Radiats Biol Radioecol 2000 Nov-Dec;40(6):693-5
[Influence of electromagnetic fields on the emotional behaviour of rats]
[Article in Russian]
Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Bliskovka GI, Akoev IG.
Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region, 142290 Russia.

Eur J Neurosci 2000 Oct;12(10):3713-20
Acute transcranial magnetic stimulation of frontal brain regions selectively modulates the release of vasopressin, biogenic amines and amino acids in the rat brain.
Keck ME, Sillaber I, Ebner K, Welt T, Toschi N, Kaehler ST, Singewald N, Philippu A, Elbel GK, Wotjak CT, Holsboer F, Landgraf R, Engelmann M.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany

Neuroreport 2000 Sep 28;11(14):3193-8
Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation alleviates tactile extinction.
Heldmann B, Kerkhoff G, Struppler A, Havel P, Jahn T.
Department of Psychiatry, Technical University of Munich, Munchen, Germany.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2000 Aug;23(2):205-15
Long-term repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cholecystokinin mRNA, but not neuropeptide tyrosine mRNA in specific areas of rat brain.
Muller MB, Toschi N, Kresse AE, Post A, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
J Psychiatr Res 2000 Jul-Oct;34(4-5):265-76
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces active coping strategies and attenuates the neuroendocrine stress response in rats.
Keck ME, Engelmann M, Muller MB, Henniger MS, Hermann B, Rupprecht R, Neumann ID, Toschi N, Landgraf R, Post A.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstr. 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000 Jun;3(2):129-134
Comparison of unlimited numbers of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and ECT treatment sessions in major depressive episode.
Pridmore S, Bruno R, Turnier-Shea Y, Reid P, Rybak M.

J Nippon Med Sch 2000 Jun;67(3):198-201
A case of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with pulsing electromagnetic fields. 17-year follow-up.
Ito H, Shirai Y, Gembun Y.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Bioelectromagnetics 2000 May;21(4):272-86
Directed and enhanced neurite growth with pulsed magnetic field stimulation.
Macias MY, Battocletti JH, Sutton CH, Pintar FA, Maiman DJ.
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2000 Apr;105(4):1371-4
Effects of pulsed magnetic energy on a microsurgically transferred vessel.
Roland D, Ferder M, Kothuru R, Faierman T, Strauch B.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Ugeskr Laeger 2000 Apr 17;162(16):2310-3
[Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. A method in the treatment of depressions]
[Article in Danish]
Hansen PE.
Arhus Universitetshospital, Psykiatrisk Hospital i Arhus, Forskningsafdeling for Affektive Sygdomme.

Adv Ther 2000 Mar-Apr;17(2):57-67
Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Marks RA.
Richardson Orthopaedic Surgery, Texas 75080, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2000 Feb 15;47(4):314-24
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of nondelusional major depressive disorder: an open study.
Grunhaus L, Dannon PN, Schreiber S, Dolberg OH, Amiaz R, Ziv R, Lefkifker E.
Psychiatry Division, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Bioelectromagnetics 2000 Feb;21(2):107-11
Effects of 100 mT time varying magnetic fields on the growth of tumors in mice.
de Seze R, Tuffet S, Moreau JM, Veyret B.
Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ondes-Matiere (PIOM), ENSCPB, Universite Bordeaux I, Talence, France.

Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000 Feb;26(1):51-62, viii
Electromagnetic fields and magnets. Investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders.
Trock DH.
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Bioelectromagnetics 2000 Feb;21(2):112-21
Effects of PEMF on a murine osteosarcoma cell line: drug-resistant (P-glycoprotein-positive) and non-resistant cells.
Miyagi N, Sato K, Rong Y, Yamamura S, Katagiri H, Kobayashi K, Iwata H.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

Biol Psychiatry 1999 Dec 15;46(12):1603-13
Frequency dependence of antidepressant response to left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a function of baseline cerebral glucose metabolism.
Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Dunn RT, Frye MA, Greenberg BD, Wassermann EM, Repella JD, Danielson AL, Willis MW, Benson BE, Speer AM, Osuch E, George MS, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Psychiatry Department, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, USA.

Panminerva Med 1999 Sep;41(3):207-15
The biological effects of magnetic stimulation in epileptic patients.
Anninos PA, Tsagas N, Jacobson JI, Kotini A.
Department of Medicine, Demokrition University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Eur J Neurosci 1999 Sep;11(9):3247-54
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats: evidence for a neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo.
Post A, Muller MB, Engelmann M, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Headache 1999 Sep;39(8):567-75
Treatment of migraine with pulsing electromagnetic fields: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Sherman RA, Acosta NM, Robson L.
Orthopedic Surgery Service, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA 98431, USA.

Bioelectromagnetics 1999 Sep;20(6):372-7
Protective effect of low frequency low energy pulsing electromagnetic fields on acute experimental myocardial infarcts in rats.
Albertini A, Zucchini P, Noera G, Cadossi R, Napoleone CP, Pierangeli A.
Hospital S.M. Misericordia of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Biol Psychiatry 1999 Jun 1;45(11):1440-6
Effects of left frontal transcranial magnetic stimulation on depressed mood, cognition, and corticomotor threshold.
Triggs WJ, McCoy KJ, Greer R, Rossi F, Bowers D, Kortenkamp S, Nadeau SE, Heilman KM, Goodman WK.
Human Motor Physiology Laboratory, University of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville 32610-0236, USA.

Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999 Apr;56(4):315-20
Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: a double-blind controlled study.
Klein E, Kreinin I, Chistyakov A, Koren D, Mecz L, Marmur S, Ben-Shachar D, Feinsod M.
Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.

Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1999 Apr;25(1):6-10
Pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of bone fractures.
Satter Syed A, Islam MS, Rabbani KS, Talukder MS.
Industrial Physics Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Dhaka.

J Hand Surg [Br] 1999 Feb;24(1):56-8
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on flexor tendon healing in chickens.
Robotti E, Zimbler AG, Kenna D, Grossman JA.
Miami Children’s Hospital, USA.

J Clin Psychiatry 1999 Jan;60(1):50-2
Safety and feasibility of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of anxious depression in pregnancy: a case report.
Nahas Z, Bohning DE, Molloy MA, Oustz JA, Risch SC, George MS.
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.

J Neurosci Res 1999 Jan 15;55(2):230-7
Electromagnetic fields influence NGF activity and levels following sciatic nerve transection.
Longo FM, Yang T, Hamilton S, Hyde JF, Walker J, Jennes L, Stach R, Sisken BF.
Department of Neurology, UCSF/VAMC, San Francisco, California, USA.

Brain Res 1999 Jan 16;816(1):78-83
Chronic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation alters beta-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor characteristics in rat brain.
Ben-Shachar D, Gazawi H, Riboyad-Levin J, Klein E.
Laboratory of Psychobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center and B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine Technion, Haifa 31096.

Panminerva Med. 1998 Dec;40(4):276-9.
Bellossi A, Pouvreau-Quilien V, Rocher C, Ruelloux M.
Effect of pulsed magnetic fields on triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma of rats.

Depress Anxiety 1998;7(2):65-8
Preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression and schizophrenia.
Feinsod M, Kreinin B, Chistyakov A, Klein E.
Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Neurosci Lett 1998 Nov 13;256(3):171-3
The effects of pulsing magnetic fields on pineal melatonin synthesis in a teleost fish (brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis).
Lerchl A, Zachmann A, Ali MA, Reiter RJ.
Institute of Reproductive Medicine of the University, Munster, Germany.

Eur J Ophthalmol 1998 Oct-Dec;8(4):253-7
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on patients with endocrine ophthalmopathy.
Jankauskiene J, Paunksnis A, Bluziene A, Saulgozis J.
Department of Ophthalmology, Kaunas Medical Academy, Lithuania.

J Indian Med Assoc 1998 Sep;96(9):272-5
A study of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with respect to serological grouping in rheumatoid arthritis.
Ganguly KS, Sarkar AK, Datta AK, Rakshit A.
National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Calcutta.

Am J Vet Res 1998 Sep;59(9):1177-81
Evaluation of treatment with a pulsed electromagnetic field on wound healing, clinicopathologic variables, and central nervous system activity of dogs.
Scardino MS, Swaim SF, Sartin EA, Steiss JE, Spano JS, Hoffman CE, Coolman SL, Peppin BL.
Scott-Ritchey Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL 36849, USA.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998 Apr;124(4):383-9
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on facial nerve regeneration.
Byers JM, Clark KF, Thompson GC.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA.

Headache 1998 Mar;38(3):208-13
Initial exploration of pulsing electromagnetic fields for treatment of migraine.
Sherman RA, Robson L, Marden LA.
Service of Orthopedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Wash. 98431, USA.

Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1997;12(1):43-53
Effects of static magnetic and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone healing.
Darendeliler MA, Darendeliler A, Sinclair PM.
Discipline of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Australia.

Am J Psychiatry 1997 Dec;154(12):1752-6
Mood improvement following daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a placebo-controlled crossover trial.
George MS, Wassermann EM, Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Williams WE, Danielson AL, Greenberg BD, Hallett M, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1997 Apr;31(2):264-72
Transcranial magnetic stimulation as therapy for depression and other disorders.
Kirkcaldie MT, Pridmore SA, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997 Apr;78(4):399-404
Pulsed magnetic and electromagnetic fields in experimental achilles tendonitis in the rat: a prospective randomized study.
Lee EW, Maffulli N, Li CK, Chan KM.
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1997;12(1):43-53
Effects of static magnetic and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone healing.
Darendeliler MA, Darendeliler A, Sinclair PM.
Discipline of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Australia.

Medicina (B Aires) 1996;56(1):41-4
[Effect of magnetic fields on skin wound healing. Experimental study]
[Article in Spanish]
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Merlo A.
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires.

J Burn Care Rehabil 1996 Nov-Dec;17(6 Pt 1):528-31
Pulsed electromagnetic fields in experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F.
Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Universidad del Salvador and Fundacion del Quemado.

Lancet 1996 Jul 27;348(9022):233-7
Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression.
Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B, Pallardo F, Catala MD.
Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidad de Valencia, Spain.

Clin Rheumatol 1996 Jul;15(4):325-8
Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: a prospective study.
Konrad K, Sevcic K, Foldes K, Piroska E, Molnar E.
Orszagos Reumatologiai es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapes, Hungary.

Vestn Oftalmol 1996 Jan-Mar;112(1):6-8
[Possibilities of magnetotherapy in stabilization of visual function in patients with glaucoma]
[Article in Russian]
Bisvas Shutanto Kumar, Listopadova NA.

J Burn Care Rehabil 1996 Nov-Dec;17(6 Pt 1):528-31
Pulsed electromagnetic fields in experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F.
Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic

Bioelectromagnetics 1995;16(5):295-300
Exposure to oscillating magnetic fields influences sensitivity to electrical stimuli. II. Experiments on humans.
Papi F, Ghione S, Rosa C, Del Seppia C, Luschi P.
Dipartimento di Scienze del Comportamento Animale e dell’Uomo, Universita di Pisa, Italy.

Neuroreport 1995 Oct 2;6(14):1853-6
Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression.
George MS, Wassermann EM, Williams WA, Callahan A, Ketter TA, Basser P, Hallett M, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Charleston, SC, USA.

Arch Med Res 1995 Summer;26(2):185-9
The influence of pulsed electrical stimulation on the wound healing of burned rat skin.
Castillo E, Sumano H, Fortoul TI, Zepeda A.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, D.F.

Bioelectromagnetics 1994;15(3):205-16
Protection against focal cerebral ischemia following exposure to a pulsed electromagnetic field.
Grant G, Cadossi R, Steinberg G.
Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, California 94305.

Eur J Surg Suppl 1994;(574):83-6
Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tissue trauma.
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C.
International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.

Panminerva Med 1994 Dec;36(4):201-5
Pineal-hypothalamic tract mediation of picotesla magnetic fields in the treatment of neurological disorders.
Jacobson JI.
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research, Jupiter, FL

Foot Ankle Int 1994 Oct;15(10):552-6
Treatment of delayed unions and nonunions of the proximal fifth metatarsal with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Holmes GB Jr.
University Orthopaedics, Rush Medical School, Chicago, Illinois.

Rheumatol 1994 Oct;21(10):1903-11
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT.

Rev Environ Health 1994 Apr-Jun;10(2):127-34
Pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia–a review.
Jerabek J.
National Institute of Public Health, Praha, Czech Republic.

Neurology 1994 May;44(5):892-8
Akinesia in Parkinson’s disease. II. Effects of subthreshold repetitive transcranial motor cortex stimulation.
Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Sole J, Brasil-Neto JP, Cammarota A, Grafman J, Hallett M.
Human Cortical Physiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Exp Neurol 1994 Feb;125(2):302-5
Enhancement of functional recovery following a crush lesion to the rat sciatic nerve by exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Walker JL, Evans JM, Resig P, Guarnieri S, Meade P, Sisken BS.
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children, Lexington.

Bioelectromagnetics 1993;14(4):353-9
Pretreatment of rats with pulsed electromagnetic fields enhances regeneration of the sciatic nerve.
Kanje M, Rusovan A, Sisken B, Lundborg G.
Department of Animal Physiology, University of Lund, Sweden.

Cas Lek Cesk 1993 Oct 11;132(19):590-4
[Possible therapeutic applications of pulsed magnetic fields]
[Article in Czech]
Navratil L, Hlavaty V, Landsingerova E.

Clin Otolaryngol. 1993 Aug;18(4):278-81.
Electromagnetic stimulation as a treatment of tinnitus: a pilot study.
Roland NJ, Hughes JB, Daley MB, Cook JA, Jones AS, McCormick MS.

J Cell Biochem 1993 Apr;51(4):387-93
Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields.
Bassett CA.
Bioelectric Research Center, Columbia University, Riverdale, New York 10463.

J Rheumatol 1993 Mar;20(3):456-60
A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, Fielding LP, Miner WK, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine (Rheumatology), Danbury Hospital, CT 06810.

Int J Neurosci 1992 Mar;63(1-2):141-50
Magnetic fields in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N, Derpapas K.
Democrition University of Thrace, Department of Medical Physics and Polytechnic School, Alexandroupolis and Xanthi, Greece.

Int J Neurosci. 1991 Aug;59(4):259-62.
Age-related disruption of circadian rhythms: possible relationship to memory impairment and implications for therapy with magnetic fields.
Sandyk R, Anninos PA, Tsagas N.
Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461.

Plast Reconstr Surg 1991 Jan;87(1):122-9
A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection injury: the role of electromagnetic field therapy.
Zienowicz RJ, Thomas BA, Kurtz WH, Orgel MG.
University of Massachusetts Medical School, Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield.

Vestn Oftalmol 1990 Sep-Oct;106(5):54-7
[Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study]
[Article in Russian]
Zobina LV, Orlovskaia LS, Sokov SL, Sabaeva GF, Konde LA, Iakovlev AA.

J Orthop Res 1990 Mar;8(2):276-82
Effect of low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields on skin ulcers of venous origin in humans: a double-blind study.
Ieran M, Zaffuto S, Bagnacani M, Annovi M, Moratti A, Cadossi R.
Department of Medical Angiology, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Oftalmol Zh 1990;(3):154-7
[The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the hemodynamics of eyes with glaucoma]
[Article in Russian]
Tsisel’skii IuV, Kashintseva LT, Skrinnik AV.

Vestn Oftalmol 1990 Sep-Oct;106(5):54-7
[Effectiveness of magnetotherapy in optic nerve atrophy. A preliminary study]
[Article in Russian]
Zobina LV, Orlovskaia LS, Sokov SL, Sabaeva GF, Konde LA, Iakovlev AA.

J Bone Miner Res 1990 May;5(5):437-42
Bone density changes in osteoporosis-prone women exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs).
Tabrah F, Hoffmeier M, Gilbert F Jr, Batkin S, Bassett CA.
University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Straub Clinic and Hospital, Honolulu.

Biochim Biophys Acta 1989 Jun 26;982(1):9-14
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on rat skin metabolism.
De Loecker W, Delport PH, Cheng N.
Afdeling Biochemie, Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, Belgium.

Brain Res 1989 Apr 24;485(2):309-16
Stimulation of rat sciatic nerve regeneration with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sisken BF, Kanje M, Lundborg G, Herbst E, Kurtz W.
Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506.

Bioelectromagnetics 1988;9(1):53-62
Effects of pulsed extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields on skin wounds in the rat.
Ottani V, De Pasquale V, Govoni P, Franchi M, Zaniol P, Ruggeri A.
Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, Bologna, Italy.

J UOEH 1988 Mar 1;10(1):31-45
The effect of long-term pulsing electromagnetic field stimulation on experimental osteoporosis of rats.
Mishima S.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

J Hand Surg [Br] 1984 Jun;9(2):105-12
An experimental study of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (Diapulse) on nerve repair.
Raji AM.

Clin Orthop 1983 Dec;(181):283-90
Effect of weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields on neural regeneration in the rat.
Ito H, Bassett CA.

J Bone Joint Surg Br 1983 Aug;65(4):478-92
Effects of high-peak pulsed electromagnetic field on the degeneration and regeneration of the common peroneal nerve in rats.
Raji AR, Bowden RE.

Non-Magnetic Studies of InterestJ Med Assoc Thai 2000 Apr;83(4):417-25
Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats.
Somboonwong J, Thanamittramanee S, Jariyapongskul A, Patumraj S.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1998 Apr;45(3):181-8
Effects of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits.
Oryan A, Zaker SR.
Pathology Department, Veterinary School, Shiraz University, Iran.

J Ethnopharmacol 1998 Jan;59(3):195-201
Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats.
Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G.
Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, India.

J Altern Complement Med 1996 Summer;2(2):271-7
Beneficial effect of Aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model.
Heggers JP, Kucukcelebi A, Listengarten D, Stabenau J, Ko F, Broemeling LD, Robson MC, Winters WD.
University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

Loo CK, Taylor JL, Gandevia SC, Mitchell PB, Sachdev PS.
Stimulus intensity in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies.
J ECT. 2001 Dec;17(4):294-5. No abstract available.
PMID: 11731736

Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(5):400-1. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous.

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